Neurodyn Aussie Sport


Neurodyn Aussie Sport Corrente Aussie
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The equipment

Neurodyn Aussie Sport is equipment for the exclusive application of Aussie current (also known as Australian current) a new generation of electrostimulation current with advantages over the traditional stimulation methods.

Aussie current presents two possibilities of frequency: 1KHz and 4KHz, which allows the selection according to the therapeutic mode: 1KHz for motor stimulation (muscle strengthening and tonification) and 4KHz for sensory stimulation (drainage and analgesia). The current presents short duration burst (2ms in the current of 1KHz and 4ms in the current of 4KHz), with frequency ranging from 1 to 120Hz and intensity from 1 to 180mA.

Neurodyn Aussie Sport presents four output channels with independent controls of intensity, 10 pre-programmed treatment protocols and 20 private protocols, larger Blue Light LCD display, soft touch keys, exclusive parameter layout and an exclusive transport bag.

O equipment must be used only under prescription and supervision of a licensed professional.

 

Accompany the equipment

  • 1 20 AG fuse of 5A (Code 03019012);
  • 1 protection fuse card (Code 03026009);
  • 1 power cable (Code 03017006);
  • 1 digital operation manual (Code 03040003);
  • 1 transport bag (Code 03026087);
  • 1 gel tube 100g (Code 03044001);
  • 8 conductive rubber electrodes 5cm x 5cm (Code 03026025);
  • 1 electrostimulation cable 2 wires – black/orange (Code 03049006);
  • 1 electrostimulation cable 2 wires– blue/green (Code 03049007).

 

Technical characteristics

  • Bivolt 100/240V| 50/60Hz;
  • Dimensions: 26.4cm x 26.1cm x 11.6cm (W x D x H);
  • Standard weight (without accessories): 1.5kg.


Differentials


What is Aussie current?

Aussie current, also known as Australian current, is a therapeutic alternating electrical current with frequency in the range of KHz with some similarity with interferential current and Russian current. The difference is in the carrier frequency of the KHz current used, in the duration of bursts and in the waveform. Traditionally, Interferential current is modulated in amplitude in sinusoidal form and the Russian current is formed from bursts with 50% duty cycle (on and off).

Aussie current presents short duration burst, which means that the stimulation promoted by Aussie current is more effective in comparison to other therapeutic currents.

 

Research and development of the current

Initial research regarding the scientific development of Aussie current were conducted by Australian researcher and PhD professor PhD Alex Ward, from the La Trobe University, in Melbourne, Australia, and had its beginnings in 1998. The inquiry of Dr. Ward, at the time, was related to the therapeutic values used in other therapeutic electrical currents already in existence, such as Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), Russian, Interferential and TENS, for motor and sensory stimulation.

Were the parameters offered by Russian and FES currents the most adequate to promote motor stimulation in the most efficient manner, with more production of torque, less discomfort and less muscle fatigue? In relation to sensory stimulation, were the parameters offered by different forms of TENS and Interferential currents the ideal ones regarding the level of discomfort during the stimulation?

Thus, Dr. Ward began, alongside with his colleagues, a series of scientific studies combining different parameters, such as: carrier frequency, forms of modulation of electric currents and duty cycles, and comparing these parameters with already existing currents. One of the first publications, titled “Sensory, motor and pain thresholds for stimulation with mediun frequency alternating current” (Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 79, 273-279, 1998), suggests that for less discomfort during electrostimulation procedure, greater alternating frequencies are more desirable.

Published in 2009, by Alex Ward and his colleagues, “Comparison of the analgesic efficacy of medium-frequency alternating current and TENS”, in the publication Physiotherapy (Dec.; 95(4): 280-288, 2009), concludes that Aussie current is as effective as TENS in the increase of the pain threshold in healthy individuals *.

 

The creator

Alex Ward, MSc, PhD, is associate professor at La Trobe University, in Melbourne, Australia. he is a Bachelor in Science of Physics from The University of Sydney and Master in Biophysics from the Macquarie University before lecturing Science of Health at The University of Sydney.

After many years as a lecturer in Health Sciences, Dr. Ward started his research about the electrophysical agents used in physiotherapy. Dr. Ward finished his doctorate from the La Trobe where he is currently a Professor and Researcher.

He has published over 30 manuscripts revised by peers in the field of electrophysical agents, besides several books, including “Electricity, Fields and Waves in Therapy” – in its third edition by Science Press), and is a co-author of “Electrotherapy Explained” – in its fourth edition by Elsevier, published in Portuguese, Korean, Polish and Greek translations. His research includes the use of electrotherapeutic waveforms, physiology of the nerve and muscle and the effects of electrical stimulation in the central nervous system.

he is a member of the Editorial Board of the international publication “Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation” and is currently a reviewer for the publications “Physiotherapy Theory and Practice” (UK). he is also a well-known founding member of the International Society for Electrophysical Physiotherapy Agents (ISEPA), and has been recently acknowledged by the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT). Dr. Ward lives with his family in Melbourne, Australia, and is a consultant for physiotherapists, both locally and internationally.

 

Investment in innovation

The history of Aussie current in Brazil and in the world began in 2007, when we followed the studies and researches carried out by Dr. Alex Ward very closely. At each publication, Dr. Ward showed that he was about to present something different, regarding electric stimulation, based on the results of his studies.

As we contacted Dr. Ward, there was confirmation by the researcher that his objective, resulting from a series of scientific studies, was to create a new proposition for motor and sensory stimulation, which was named Aussie current.

In November, 2007, our CEO, Mr. José Ricardo de Souza, traveled to Australia to meet with Dr. Ward.

The idea was to incorporate, in our line of products for physical rehabilitation, an exclusive electrotherapeutic modality with great therapeutic potential and fundamentally based on scientific research, published in the physical rehabilitation field of study.

Our first device to receive Aussie current as a therapeutic modality was Heccus. After that, Aussie current was included in Neurodyn 10 Channels, Neurodyn Rubi and now we present to the sports physiotherapists Neurodyn Aussie Sport.

Treatments


Positioning of the electrodes

 

Pathologies – Spine

Compression fracture

Mechanism: more common in T11-L2, can be related to trauma or osteoporosis;

Signs and symptoms: acute pain with contracture of the adjacent muscle and extension and rotation limitation.

 

Spondylosis/Arthrosis

Mechanism: degenerative alterations which generally affect C5-C6, C6-C7, L4-L5 in individuals over 60 years of age;

Signs and symptoms: slow evolution, unilateral pain which increases with prolonged postures, increase of pain with extension and decrease with flexion without irradiation, diagnosis confirmed by X-ray with the presence of osteophytes, decrease of the articular space and narrowing of the intervertebral foramen.

 

Spondylosis

Mechanism: traumatic fracture of pars or stress fracture due to repeated or sustained extension, pathology found in young athletes, secondary to repetition trauma (ski jumping or gymnastics). There might be structural predisposition;

Signs and symptoms: pain, primarily with extension, intermittent neurological signs and symptoms. Oblique X-ray reveals fracture of pars interarticularis without sliding.

 

Spondilolistesis

Mechanism: vertebral subluxation or secondary sliding to long-term lumbar trauma. Retrolisthesis = is an uncommon dysfunction, which presents flexion symptoms;

Signs and symptoms: compromising of the L5 sciatic nerve, morning rigidity, difficulty in rising from bed, increase of pain with trunk extension, poor neuromuscular control (process in 2 phases to move from previous flexion to extension. First, extending the lumbar spine and then extending the hip) and deformity in palpable degree only in the orthostatic position.

Positive Compression and passive intervertebral movement tests and X-ray in AP and lateral confirm the diagnosis.

 

Lumbar Disc Pathology

Mechanism: generally, it results from repetition stress in the lumbar spine through inadequate body movements or excessive posterior/lateral > lateral force; more common between 30 and 50 years of age. See below in “Posture and pain in lumbar disc pathologies”;

Signs and symptoms:

  • Postero-lateral disc herniation: the first sign is lumbalgia (which slowly decreases, and there is also decrease in leg pain), decrease in flexion of secondary lumbar spine and increase of pressure over the disc, positive thecal signs (pain when sneezing or coughing), positive straight leg raise test, decrease of lumbar lordosis and lateral deviation of the foot which decreases in lying position;
  • Lateral disc herniation: absence of lumbalgia, symptoms in lower limbs consistent with the level of the lesion, increase of pain in standing position and walking, decrease of pain in sitting position and negative straight leg raise test. The standard X-ray is of little consequence, because it only detects pre-existing degenerative alterations; MRI, CT, myelogram and discogram are used for the diagnosis.

 

Posture and pain in lumbar disc pathologies

Posture: Ipsilateral Tilt (medial pain attitude)

  • Pain – Herniation is medial to the nerve root – decrease of pain;
  • Pain – Herniation is lateral to the nerve root – increase of pain.

 

Posture: Contralateral Tilt (lateral pain attitude)

  • Pain – Herniation is medial to the nerve root – increase of pain;
  • Pain – Herniation is lateral to the nerve root – decrease of pain.

 

Ankylosing spondylitis (Mary-Strümpell disease)

Mechanism: involves the anterior longitudinal ligament and the ossification of the thoracic zygapophyseal joints; more common between 15 and 40 years of age and more prevalent in men than in women;

Signs and symptoms:

  • Posture alterations: cervical hyperextension, thoracic kyphosis, decrease of lumbar lordosis, flexion contracture of hip and knee;
  • Night pain and decrease of the expansion of ribs;
  • Increase of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR);
  • 5 questions for screening: morning stiffness > 30 minutes; improvement with exercises; start of pain < 40 years of age; slow evolution; symptoms over 3 months (four or more indicate high correlation with ankylosing spondylitis).

 

Pathologies – Elbow

Luxation of elbow (posterior)

Mechanism: common in children and young adults, resulting from a fall onto an outstretched hand;

Signs and symptoms: pain, inability to flex the elbow, deformity and sensitivity to palpation.   Diagnosis confirmed by X-ray, it is necessary to rule out fracture and check the distal pulses. Attention to a possible development of Myositis ossificans of brachialis muscle.

 

Radial head subluxation

Mechanism: common in children from 2 to 4 years of age, as a result of pulling the child by the hand or forearm, applying distraction force;

Signs and symptoms: the child maintains the arm immobilized in pronation and flexion, the radial head is painful in palpation and the child reports discomfort in the wrist due to the increase of pressure by the distal dislocation of the radial head. An X-ray is carried out if in case of suspected fracture. Reduction maneuver: thumb in the cubital fossa to serve as a fulcrum support and execute the supination and flexion of the forearm.

 

Distension of the medial collateral ligament

Mechanism: straining or rupture of the ligament, common in shot put athletes, secondary to valgus stress;

Signs and symptoms: acute trauma which can be accompanied by a pop, pain during palpation of the medial articular line and valgus instability. Diagnosis confirmed by MRI. It is necessary to rule out avulsion.

Olecranon bursitis  

Mechanism: the so-called “student elbow” may result from direct or indirect trauma or repetitive activities of the upper limbs;

Signs and symptoms: a well-defined mass in the olecranon, which presents warm, thick and “sandy” in palpation; decrease of the extension of the elbow with pain in unspecific palpation; MRI is used for confirmation.

 

Stress fracture/Medial epicondyle avulsion

Mechanism: also known as “pitcher’s elbow”, secondary to the repetitive throwing movement, is commonly seen in young patients with acceleration of the upper limb with flexion of the elbow and valgus stress;

Signs and symptoms: progressive pain and sensitivity in palpation of the medial epicondyle. Limited amplitude of movement MA and positive valgus stress test. Diagnosis confirmed by MRI or X-ray.

 

Medial Epicondylitis

Mechanism: also known as “golfer’s elbow, baseball elbow, suitcase elbow, or forehand tennis elbow”, with insidious onset, secondary to repetitive forces over the knee, which affect the round pronator;

Signs and symptoms: pain in resisted flexion with ulnar deviation and/or elongation passive for the extension of wrist, in supination with radial deviation; sensitivity in palpation of the proximal musculotendinous junction and positive passive tests and resistance tests. MRI can confirm the diagnosis and rule out fracture or avulsion.

 

Lateral Epicondylitis 

Mechanism: also known as “tennis elbow”, by overuse or microtrauma in the lateral muscle. it may result from a short-handle tennis racket, a too hard or heavy racket or with a head size area that is too small.

Signs and symptoms: morning stiffness, pain with resisted flexion of elbow, in supination and radial deviation or passive elongation for flexion and pronation of the wrist in ulnar deviation. positive Cozen and Mill tests, pain in palpation of proximal musculotendinous junction of the extensor and supinator of the wrist.  MRI can confirm the diagnosis and rule out fracture or avulsion.

 

 

 

Pathologies – Knee

Chondromalacia (Patellofemoral Syndrome)

Mechanism: softening and breakdown of the tissue (cartilage) on the underside of the kneecap (patella), secondary to poor biomechanical alignment/deviation of lower limb and/or weakness of the lateral rotator muscles of the hip;

Signs and symptoms: anterior pain in the knee in the retro and peripatellar region when climbing and going down stairs, crepitation, atrophy of the vastus lateralis oblique, atrophy of the vastus medialis oblique, weakness of the lateral rotator muscles, valgus knee, increase of the Q angle of the quadriceps, patellar lateralization, positive Clarke, Fairbank, Rabot and “theater sign” (the theater or moviegoer sign – pain on prolonged sitting with the flexed knees) tests. Confirmation of diagnosis by MRI.

 

Patellar Subluxation

Mechanism: predisposing factors include excessive lateral rotation of the tibia, high patellar pronation, contracture of the lateral retinaculum, hip weakness in lateral rotation, small medium facet of the patella and dysplastic femoral trochlea (shallow). More common in teenage girls with valgus knee (increase of the Q angle of the quadriceps and femoral rotation);

Signs and symptoms: the effusion mobilizes the vastus lateralis oblique, positive patellar apprehension test and pain along the medial border of the patella. Sitting at 90° of hip flexion and 90° of knee flexion. the patella points in the upper and lateral direction, the patient complains of weakness of the knee of the affected leg and increase in the Q angle of the quadriceps. The X-ray can reveal osteochondral fragments or fracture, several radiography positions are necessary to evaluated all the articular surfaces.

 

LCL sprain (lateral collateral ligament)

Mechanism: lesion resulting from varus stress, leading to strain or rupture of LCL;

Signs and symptoms: warmth and edema in the lateral region of the knee, pain in palpation of the lateral articular line of the knee, movement amplitude MA may not be affected, positive varus stress test, diagnosis confirmed by MRI or arthrography with contrast. Regular X-ray, but it is necessary to rule out avulsion or lesion of the epiphyseal plate. The image of the varus stress in varus can show increase of articular space.

 

ACL lesion (Anterior cruciate ligament)

Mechanism: lesion resulting from sprain during change of direction, deceleration in valgus and lateral rotation, hyperflexion of the knee with the ankle in plantar flexion and hyperextension of the knee;

Signs and symptoms: audible pop with immediate swelling (less than 2 hours), intense pain in the lateral posterior tibia and instable in orthostatic position, positive anterior drawer test, Lachman and Pivot Shift tests.

KT 1.000/2.000 anterior displacement greater than 5mm, X-ray (except in cases of avulsion) and MRI is the exam of choice for the diagnosis of hemorrhagic arthrocentesis.

 

PCL lesion (Posterior cruciate ligament)

Mechanism: lesion resulting from the trauma against the car panel in the knee bended at 90° or fall over the knee with the foot in plantar flexion;

Signs and symptoms: minimal edema, ecchymosis may appear after days, pain in the popliteal fossa and when kneeling. The patient may be able to continue practicing sports. Positive posterior drawer test, posterior Lachman and Godfrey tests. regular X-ray (except in avulsion cases). MRI is the exam of choice for the diagnosis of hemorrhagic arthrocentesis.

 

Meniscus rupture

Mechanism: lesion resulting from rotatory forces when in orthostatic position or hyperflexion of knee, medial lateral femoral tibial rotation injures the medial lateral meniscus;

Common types of ruptures:

Children = longitudinal and peripheral lesions;

Adolescents = bucket handle lesion.

Signs and symptoms: negative varus and valgus stress tests, pain in the end of the movement amplitude MA of flexion and extension of knee and in orthostatic position; gradual swelling in 1 or 2 days, ecchymosis, pain in the articular interline, positive McMurray e Apley tests and the anterior portion locks in extension, the posterior in flexion, the medial in flexion at 10° to 30° and the lateral in flexion exceeding 70°. An X-ray can rule out fracture, tumor, loose bone fragments. MRI can reveal pseudo-rupture. The diagnosis is confirmed with arthrography with contrast.

 

Articular Degenerative disease (arthrosis)

Mechanism: resulting from ageing, alteration of biomechanics, sequelae of trauma or articular pathology, repetitive trauma;

Signs and symptoms: crepitation in the articular line, reduction of the terminal extension of the knee secondary to edema (atrophy of the femoral quadriceps), reduction of the stop time in gait. “Gelling phenomenon”: increase of viscosity of the synovial fluid secondary to inflammation. Pain in the anteromedial knee and rigidity with immobilization. X-ray reveals narrowing of the articular space, spurs and osteophytes.

 

Pathologies – Shoulder

Clavicle Fracture

Mechanism: resulting from a fall over the shoulder or direct impact on the clavicle;

Signs and symptoms: patients are unable to raise the arm, deformity observed in visual inspection and pain in palpation. Diagnosis confirmed by X-ray.

 

 

Acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation

Mechanism: may result from a fall onto the acromion or over the outstretched hand. Know the degrees of acromioclavicular dislocation;

Scale of Acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation (Degrees)

Acromioclavicular space must be between 0.3 and 0.8cm. The distance of the inferior portion of the clavicula to the coracoid process must be between 1.0 and 1.5cm;

Type 1 (first degree): acromioclavicular space > 0.8cm. Pain in the horizontal adduction and elevation. Positive AC Compression Test;

Type 2 (second degree): acromioclavicular space between 1.0 and 5cm. Coracoclavicular distance increased by 25 and 50%;

Type 3 (Third degree): acromioclavicular space > 50%. Coracoclavicular distance increased by > 50%, with deformity in “step deformity”;

Signs and symptoms: pain and crepitation in palpation and deformity observed in visual inspection, cross adduction test anterior to the body, O’Brien test, acromioclavicular compression, positive sulcus sign and acromioclavicular traction tests. Diagnosis confirmed by bilateral X-ray A/P in lateral rotation, with and without load from 5 to 7 kilograms (stress X-ray), necessary to rule out impact.

 

Glenohumeral joint dislocation

Mechanism: anterior luxation is the most common (90%), the mechanism is the fall onto the outstretched hand;

Signs and symptoms: prominent acromion, flattened shoulder profile and prominent humeral head. Posture: shoulder in medial rotation and slightly adducted, elbow in flexion, forearm in pronation and upper limb sustained by collateral limb. Acute stabbing pain, muscle contracture, humeral head is palpable in anterior/posterior armpit; positive apprehension and sulcus sign test. X-ray: lesion de Hills-Sachs lesion is visible in the incidence A/P with the upper limb in lateral rotation.  The A Bankart lesion is visible in the Garth incidence (apical oblique) and it is necessary to rule out fracture of neck of the humerus in elderly individuals.

 

Bicipital Tendinitis

Mechanism: chronic irritation resulting from trauma or awkward movements. The anteriorized head contributes for the abnormal scapulohumeral rhythm;

Signs and symptoms: the pain increases at night. Pain in palpation localized in the biceps tendon at 10° of medial rotation (positions the tendon anterior and approximately 6cm below the acromion. The active elevation results in a painful arch, crepitation, positive Speed test, Yergason’s test negative for pop but painful.  X-ray incidence over the bicipital sulcus reveals the angle of the medial wall, spurs and degenerative alterations. Caudal incidence reveals spurs, frequently associated with impact of the rotator cuff.

 

 

Pathologies – Wrist and hand

Colles or Smith fracture

Mechanism: distal radius fracture secondary to a fall over the outstretched hand with extreme extension of the wrist. It is common in adults over 50 years of age and children. Greenstick fracture or in the epiphyseal growth plate;

Signs and symptoms: pain in palpation in the anatomical snuffbox, edema and ecchymosis, structural deformity with limited movement amplitude MA. Diagnosis confirmed by X-ray, P/A oblique and lateral (Colles fracture: dorsal angle of the distal fragments and Smith fracture: palmar angle of the distal fragments).

 

Dupuytren’s contracture

Mechanism: contracture in flexion with thickening of the palmar fascia of the 4th and 5th fingers, unknown etiology (if associated with diabetes mellitus, it can include the 3rd and 4th fingers) epilepsy and positive family history; more common in men over 40 years of age;

Signs and symptoms: nodules in palmar aponeurosis on the ulnar side and shortening of the natatory ligament (ligamentum natatorium of Braune). Generally, there is no pain, but the metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP) are not able to extend, it can reoccur weeks or years after the diagnosis confirmed by MRI or CT.

 

Ruptured Tendon

Mechanism: resulting from trauma;

Signs and symptoms: edema and pain in palpation are specific for the tendon, unable to actively move an articulation, long extensor of the thumb: without extension of the interphalangeal joints of the thumb (mallet finger), long flexor of thumb: without flexion of the interphalangeal joints of the thumb, extensor of the fingers: without isolated extension of the fingers (mallet finger), deep flexor of the fingers: without flexion of the distal interphalangeal (Jersey finger), superficial flexor of the fingers: without flexion of the proximal interphalangeal. Diagnosis confirmed by MRI or CT and it is necessary to rule out fracture or avulsion.

 

Pathologies – Hip

Piriformis syndrome

Mechanism: resulting from muscle contraction, trauma and prolonged, sitting position commonly due to repetitive compressive forces or may result from a change or increase in physical activity, more common in women;

Signs and symptoms:

  • Pain in palpation of piriformis;
  • backpain and pain in the Ipsilateral gluteus;
  • Pain referred to the lower limb;
  • Pain in the gluteus, the pain increases in the sitting position and gait and decreases in supine position;
  • Pain with extension of the hip against resistance and medial passive rotation with adduction;
  • Pain and weakness in adduction against resistance and external rotation of the thigh;
  • Pain in stretching of the hip, adduction and internal rotation.

Regular X-ray, necessary to rule out stress fracture and distension. MRI to rule out pathologies of spinal cord (lesion of sensitive nerve roots, spinal canal stenosis, sacroiliac dysfunction and herniated disk).

 

Acetabular labral tear

Mechanism: damage to the fibrocartilage by degenerative changes or application of an external rotation force to the hip in hyperextension or lateral rotation;

Signs and symptoms: pain depending on the position that is not relieved with rest, acute pain in the hip and inguinal region with rotation in adduction and reduction, lock up, positive Scour and Labral (anterior or posterior) tests. MRI with contrast is the best diagnostic test   (frequently inconclusive).

 

Femoral neck stress fracture

Mechanism: gradual start with previous history of heavy work. Attention to eating disorders, amenorrhea and osteoporosis;

Signs and symptoms: inguinal pain in physical activities, pain in palpation of the greater trochanter of the femur and positive Faber test.  May need a CT or MRI if the X-ray is inconclusive. It is necessary to rule out trochanteric bursitis and osteoid osteoma.

 

Pathologies – Ankle and foot

Hallux Valgus (Bunions)

Mechanism: rheumatoid arthritis, inadequate shoes and flat feet;

Signs and symptoms: pain, edema, hallux valgus > 15°. Hallux and second toe in mallet. X-ray is useful and it is necessary to rule out rheumatoid arthritis.

 

 

Plantar fasciitis

Mechanism: the plantar fascia is a continuous structure with the gastrocnemius muscle subjected to inflammation secondary to repetitive stress, caused by inadequate shoes, hard surfaces, increase in pronation and obesity;

Signs and symptoms: morning pain that decreases with exercise, nodules are palpable over the proximal medial border of the plantar fascia, pain in dorsiflexion and extension of the toes, decrease in dorsiflexion due to the shortening of the gastrocnemius, weakness in the intrinsic muscles of the foot, sensitivity and normal reflex and normal electroneuromyography. X-ray may reveal calcaneal spur, however there is no correlation between a bone spur and the plantar fasciitis pain.

 

Fibular Tendinitis

Mechanism: structurally, there are three anatomic sheaths where the tendon passes in an acute angle which may result in irritation or decrease in vascularization secondary to trauma, inversion sprain or direct contusion;

Signs and symptoms: subluxation of the tendon (clamping in the eversion in dorsiflexion) the subluxation is the most common in young athletes, secondary to forced dorsiflexion of the inverted foot with contraction of the fibular, as well as edema and ecchymosis in the inferior region of the lateral malleolus. An X-ray may reveal avulsion of the lateral retinaculum.

 

Sever’s disease (calcaneal apophysitis)

Mechanism: occurs at the ages between 8 and 16 years, more prevalent in women than in men due to fast growth, with stress on the epiphysis during jumps or athletic events. May be bilateral;

Signs and symptoms: pain in the heels, pain in palpation with medial-lateral compression of the calcaneal growth plate; decrease of dorsiflexion due to pain; pain when climbing stairs. X-ray may not be useful. Responds well to elevation of the calcaneus (improvement may take months).

 

Achilles tendonitis (Achilles tendinopathy)

Mechanism: there is a terminal vascularization zone 4.5cm above the insertion of the tendon, which is vulnerable to Ischemia secondary to hill running (uphill = spraining and downhill eccentric stress), inadequate footwear, excessive pronation (increase of rotational forces) occurs predominantly in men between 30 to 50 years of age;

Signs and symptoms: pain in palpation 2 to 6cm proximal to the insertion of the calcaneal, morning rigidity, antalgic gait, pain when climbing stairs, thickening of the tendon and crepitation during active MA (‘wet leather’ sign), palpable Achilles nodule, (retrocalcaneal exostosis), decrease of dorsiflexion of the ankle with extended knee, MRI to rule out tendon defect and DVT.

 

 

Achilles tendon rupture

Mechanism: in individuals younger than 30 years of age, the lesion os secondary to a direct trauma of the gastrocnemius or forced contraction; in individuals older than 30 years of age, it is secondary to degeneration (higher incidence in individuals with type O blood);

Signs and symptoms: popping sound associated to the lesion. palpable, hatchet-shaped deformity in the tendon (Hatchet sign) if examined prematurely, impossibility of walking on the tip of the toe, edema (within 1 to 2 hours) and ecchymosis, positive Thompson test. MRI confirm the diagnosis.

 

Syndesmotic distension

Mechanism: lesion of the anterior/posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament secondary to hyper dorsiflexion or eversion;

Signs and symptoms: positive compression and lateral rotation tests, pain and edema over the ligaments and interosseous membrane. Oblique X-ray may show abnormal widening of the articular space.  Recovery time: 5 + (0.97 x cm from the ankle articulation, in which the Compression test is positive) of approximately three days.

 

Lateral sprain

Mechanism: lesion of the anterior talofibular and posterior talofibular ligaments, secondary to inversion with plantar flexion;

Signs and symptoms: rich vascularization (significant edema within two hours), pain in palpation over the affected ligaments, ecchymosis that drains in distal direction, positive Talar tilt test and anterior drawer (presence of a depression closely under the lateral malleolus). X-ray does not show fracture, however, under stress, it may present increase in the articular space. Arthrography is accurate only within 24 hours.

 

Degrees of ankle sprain

Grade 1: absence of hemorrhage, minimal edema, sensitivity spot, without looseness in varus/anterior drawer anterior/talar tilt, almost no limping or does not limp and difficulty to jump. Recovery from 2 to 10 days;

Grade 2: a certain degree of hemorrhage, localized edema (decrease in the definition of the Achilles tendon), positive anterior drawer and talar tilt tests, without looseness in varus, limping, inability to stand on the tip of the toe, jump or run. Recovery from 10 to 30 days;

Grade 3: diffuse edema (without definition of the Achilles tendon), medial and lateral sensitivity, anterior drawer test, positive talar tilt and varus, incapacity to lean weight on the affected member. Recovery from 30 to 90 days.

Indications


  • Prevention or delay of disuse athropy;
  • Motor re-education;
  • Increase in muscle torque;
  • Maintenance or increase in amplitude of articular movement;
  • Symptomatic relief of intractable chronic pain;
  • Symptomatic relief of acute post-traumatic pain;
  • Symptomatic relief of acute postoperative;
  • Relaxation of muscle spasms;
  • Increase in local blood flow.

Contraindications


  • Implanted electronic device (ex.: cardiac pacemaker, deep brain stimulation device, etc.);
  • It must not be used for the symptomatic relief of pain without known etiology, unless the pain syndrome has been diagnosed;
  • Over the nerves of the carotid sheath, particularly in patients with altered sensitivity to the reflex of the carotid sheath;
  • Over the cardiac area, because it can cause cardiac arrhythmia;
  • Over the skull cap;
  • Over or next to cancerous lesions;
  • Over infected, inflamed areas, or over skin eruptions, such as phlebitis or thrombophlebitis;
  • Over caliber varicose veins, for the risk of thrombus displacement;
  • In patients with Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT);

In the presence of electronic control equipment (for example, cardiac monitors, ECG alarms etc.), which cannot function correctly when the electrostimulation device is in use.

Comparative


Equipamento Estimulador Neuromuscular Neurodyn Estimulador Neuromuscular Neurodyn IIEstimulador Neuromuscular Neurodyn III
Estimulador Neuromuscular Neurodyn Compact Estimulador Neuromuscular Neurodyn Aussie Sport 
NeurodynNeurodyn IINeurodyn IIINeurodyn compactNeurodyn Aussie SportNeurodyn Evolution
Estimulador NeuromuscularEstimulador NeuromuscularEstimulador NeuromuscularEstimulador NeuromuscularEstimulador NeuromuscularEstimulador Neuromuscular
(tratamento de distúrbio uro-genecológicos e colo-proctológivos)
4 canais de saída com controles independentes4 canais de saída com controles independentes2 canais de saída com controles independentes2 canais de saída com controles independentes4 canais de saída com controles independentes3 sondas para eletroestimulação
2 sondas para biofeedback
Corrente Aussie
Corrente Russa
Corrente TENS
Corrente FES
Corrente Interferencial Tetrapolar
Corrente Interferencial Bipolar
TENS
FES
Corrente Russa
TENS
FES
TENS
FES
Corrente Russa
Corrente Aussie
(1KHz e 4 KHz)
FES
2 canais com controles: independentes
Microcorrente
Corrente Polarizada
Corrente Pulsada de Alta Voltagem
54 protocolos pré-programados e
20 particulares
32 protocolos pré-programados e
20 particulares
25 protocolos pré-programados e
10 particulares
32 protocolos pré-programados e
20 particulares
7 protocolos pré-programados e
10 particulares
Apresenta software que possibilita a criação de protocolos de tratamentos
Display LCD Blue Light teclas soft touchDisplay gráfico maior que facilita a identificação dos protocolos e programaçõesEstímulo manual através da exclusiva tecla MS.
Display Blue Ligh com teclas soft touch.
DISPLAY GRÁFICO QUE FACILITA A IDENTIFICAÇÃO DOS PROTOCOLOS E PROGRAMAÇÕESDisplay LCD blue lignt maior, teclas soft touch e disposição dos parâmetros de forma diferenciadaPode ser operado conectado ou não a um computador
ReabilitaçãoReabilitaçãoReabilitaçãoReabilitaçãoReabilitaçãoReabilitação

 

  Estimulador Neuromuscular Neurodyn Portable TENSEstimulador Neuromuscular Neurodyn Portable TENS FES  Estimulador Neuromuscular Neurodyn 10 Canais Estimulador Neuromuscular Neurodyn High Volt Estimulador Neuromuscular Neurodyn Esthetic
NeurovectorNeurodyn Portable TENSNeurodyn Portable TENS/ FESNeurodyn 10 CanaisNeurodyn High VoltNeurodyn Esthetic
Modo de estimulação interferencialEstimulador NeuromuscularEstimulador NeuromuscularEstimulador NeuromuscularEstimulador NeuromuscularEstimulador Neuromuscular
Bipolar
Tetrapolar
2 canais de saída com controles independentes2 canais de saída com controles independentes10 canais de saída com controles independentes2 canais de saída com controles independentes5 canais de saída com controles independentes
Frequência portadora
(2000 Hz, 4000 Hz ou 8000 Hz)
TENSTENS
FES
Corrente Russa
(2.500Hz)
Eletrolipólise e Corrente Aussie
(1.000 e 4.000 Hz)
CPAV
Eletroporação
Corrente Aussie
Microcorrente Polarizada (PMES)
Corrente Polarizada (POL)
Microcorrente (MENS)
Massagem Aura
modos
contínuo, sincrônico, recíproco, desobstrução e sequencial
sexto canal com controle independente de intensidade para Alta Frequência
20 protocolos pré-programados e
10 particulares
12 protocolos pré-programados e
20 particulares
19 protocolos pré-programados e
10 particulares
Equipamento portátil que pode ser operado com bateria de 9 volts ou conectado à rede elétricaEquipamento portátil que pode ser operado com bateria de 9 volts ou conectado à rede elétricaTeclas soft touch. Design diferenciado, com cabos coloridosDisplay gráfico maior que facilita a identificação dos protocolos e programaçõesDisplay LCD blue light, teclas soft touch e disposição de parâmetros de forma diferenciadas.
ReabilitaçãoReabilitaçãoReabilitaçãoReabilitação e estéticaReabilitação e estéticaestética

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